Final Assessment


Over the course of 12 hectic days, I have to admit I have made a lot of progress in terms of my digital literacy and knowledge about the WORLD WIDE WEB.

I absolutely enjoyed the freedom to discover, learn and share our views the way this module allowed me to. The outcome of the knowledge we picked up from various sources resulted to an extensive amount of information shared through our blogs at #mang2049. There may have been difficulties in some broader topics but as the saying goes, “if you find a path with no obstacles, it probably doesn’t lead anywhere”. One suggestion is to provide a general expectations for each topic as I have noticed that we can easily to get side-tracked during content building.


Self-assessment Test


Major takeaways from this module

At the end of this module I learned many new tips and tricks on being a user of the web.

We should all learn to expand our networks beyond the course by reaching out to relevant areas of interests, people or companies in social media. An example would be to follow companies in a certain industry or have the same organisational culture that you might be interested in working for in the future.

High importance should be placed on presenting a professional online digital portfolios. Although it is unusual for an online profile to be the only basis upon which a hiring decision is made, to a potential marketer our digital profiles should definitely be deemed with upmost importance.

It is beneficial to engage or participate in collaborations/conversations with people beyond the module. Broadening our network not only builds connections but also raises our profile, create a pool for shared knowledge and increases job/partnership opportunities.

We are also taught to be creative in blogging by relying less on text and exploring new tools that can visually enhance and send our message across to our readers more efficiently. For example, we were urged to use applications like Piktochart, Powtoon and Prezis to illustrate a point rather than a long verbal description. These tools may also be applied for upcoming modules, assignments or even when we enter the workforce.

Our posts had to be “constructively critical” about the topics assigned and be able to resonate with the way we comprehend it. This holds the same for comments, where our comments should make them consider an alternative perspective.



12 Days Journey



Major digital profile makeover

Below is a clip I created to showcase the way I update my digital profiles across social media platforms like Facebook, LinkedIn and Twitter.


Future Plans

I plan to continue to widen my network of friends and connection with people that share the same interests as me through Facebook, LinkedIn and Twitter. Also, it is important that I ensure consistent professionalism with my posts so that I may portray myself in the best light possible.

Special thanks

Last but not least, special thanks to Lisa, Sarah and Nic for their constant guidance and amazing support even though they are located miles away. A perfect example of how online communities like Google Hangout and YouTube empowers learning outside of our four walls classroom.


(Word count: 509 words)


Reflection: Topic 5


Undoubtedly, many of us including my classmates rely on the use of Open Access (OA) for different purposes – research, music, movies, inspiration, etc. Many take for granted that these information are up for grabs but in reality barriers are put in place before they are within reach. OA easily solves that issue but how are we to pay due respect and credit to these generous content producers is the issue at hand.

Wansia shared many benefits along with limitations CP face with OA. To us users, we hesitate to support content producers monetarily, but they even have to pay for their own publications!? Where are our manners? In my opinion, funding should be provided for these content producers that are not compensated properly for their work. These funding can come from institutional organisations or even the government.

An interesting business model, unlike paywalls that many publications use, Klarissa introduced is called Freemium. Freemium refers to a system which by a company offers a service free of charge, then present its consumers with the option to upgrade to enjoy the full features. This idea sounds much more accepting compared to paywalls where readers face issues such as paying for content that does not support their requirements. The question is would CP be supportive of this Freemium business model too and is it applicable for the various types of content being produced?

Many also raised the issue of Plagiarism which is agree is very disadvantageous to content producers. Not only can people plagiarise their content, they may even get accused of plagiarising from others. With OA so broadly used in various formats, it is hard and even troublesome to determine if ideas are truly original or copied before being published.

Regarding the issue of the use of OA, I am deliberating on the use of it. Sometimes I wish that all content producers are generous with sharing their content like Sal Khan that created Khan Academy, but that belongs in an idealistic world.

(Word count: 332 words)



Forbes. (2013). Education Finally Ripe For Radical Innovation By Social Entrepreneurs. [online] Available at:

Funding Agencies and Organisations in the Asia and Oceania Region. (2014) [ebook] Available at:

Kaye, L. (2016). Buzzfeed Accused of Stealing Content Yet Again. [online] Triple Pundit: People, Planet, Profit. Available at:

Watters, A. (2011). How to Combat Plagiarism. [online] Edutopia. Available at:

Comments made:


Wan Sia

Topic 5: Perspective of a content producer

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From the perspecive of a student, OA (Open Access) is like the saviour of my many assignments that require much supporting articles and information. It is almost impossible to replace OA as it empowers us to seamlessly share and learn from educational resources with efficiency. Not only that, as covered in Topic 4 reflection like social media, OA enables it users to engage in self education as a student, enhancing classroom teachings as an educator, and decrease the cost of learning materials required in a traditional setting, keep updated with industry advancements as a practioner, etc. (Wiley, Green and Soares, 2012)

(Source: Youtube –  Nick Shockey and Jonathan Eisen)

BusinessStartup Costs.png


To explain the infograph in further detail:

OA means a “Free for all” for readers with an appetite for knowledge. Through open access sites, there is a removal of technical, legal and financial barriers for readers, meaning no restrictions to knowledge sharing. As the word “Open” suggest, authors wil be able to gain entrance to a greater audience which equals to greater recognition as they generally become more discoverable. There is also a slight chance of job market signalling as the capabilities of the author is then showcased through his work. As we all know, internet participation is progressively increasing throughout the years, this means publications are gaining access in developing countries as well. As OA provides opportunities for researchers to share and build on existing content, quality work and progress can be achieved in our education and learning system. Meanwhile, those with the least access to education today may be the first to benefit from the breakthroughs enabled by the OA.

Depite the beauty of OA, it also has its flaws for content producers. Publication fees are a big issue as authors may have to pay for their work to be published. Unlike at institutional bodies (e.g. Harvard University and Karlsruhe Institute of Technology), they do create funds dedicated to cover some if not all of their open access publication cost (Springer,2016). There may also be a lack of quality control of publications as content producers using Open Access may go for quantity over quality to cover research costs. Will this not create a backlash when they realise that they are not building a reputable name for themselves as they produce “unsatisfactory work”? In addition, some argue that content producers are not adequately compensated for the substantial role they play. Without support from publishers, content producers will naturally shy away from OA.


(Source: Highlights from the SOAP project – survey

Above is a survey done by 36,507 respondents known for being active researchers. As shown, most respondents actively stand by the use of OA publishings.

Likewise, I support the use of OA previously but after further research on its position against a content producer, I am likely to think twice on my answer. How can we tackle the disadvantages of OA and continue to support it?


Geib, A. (2013). Advantages and Disadvantages of Open Access | Edanz Editing. [online] Available at: [Accessed 15 Nov. 2016]

Wiley, D., Green, C. and Soares, L. (2012). Dramatically Bringing down the Cost of Education with OER: How Open Education Resources Unlock the Door to Free Learning.. [online] Available at:   [Accessed 15 Nov. 2016]

Springer. (2016). Open access funding. [online] Available at: [Accessed 15 Nov. 2016].

Reflection: Topic 4

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There are many implications raised that the use of social network sites as tools have modified and innovated teaching/learning practices in academic activities.

Social network sites, either specifically designed for education (e.g. Edmodo and Ning) and professional/research purposes (e.g. LinkedIn and ResearchGate) or originally focused on social-relational (e.g. Facebook and Twitter), are progressively gaining attention in relation to uses at school.

As such, any educational use of social-relational platforms, would require both teachers and students to understand that identities and communications need to be managed in new ways through adjusting teaching and learning methods to avoid misconduct of ethics.

Valerie too shared that privacy is important to everyone. Just like in the business world, schools may use social media with the good intention of understanding its users (students) and enhancing their learning experience by shaping the curriculum to their needs and expectations. Greenhow and colleagues (2014) reported how several studies emphasize that youth demand learning spaces that reflect many features social media provides. They want learning to be fun, participatory and, invites connection and communication between peers; to which I agree.

Take a look at this guide I found!


Besides this guide, Wendy too shared how social media can be incorporated into education while avoiding misconduct of ethics. She shares that good ethical practices should require educationist to adhered to professionalism when using social media. Not only that, students too play a role in abiding by ethical conduct as teacher can also be a victim.

To me, the blurring restrictions and rules of social media in education definitely requires new digital literacies and competencies especially related to privacy management and identity issues for both teachers and students. But as ethical issues are mostly directed towards the duties of educators, there will be a dilemma for schools to decide whether to incorporate social media into their teachings.


(Word count: 309 words)


Greenhow, C., Gleason, B., & Li, J. (2014). Psychological, social, and educational dynamics of adolescents’ online social networking. Media Education. Studi, ricerche, buone pratiche, 5, 2, 115- 130.

Comments made:



Topic 4: Ethical issues of using social media in an educational context

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Ethics and morals are often associated with the branch of knowledge that deals with moral principles, and schools can provide important lessons in ethical thinking and action (Weinstein, 2009).

43% of students in grade 9-12 say social networking sites are the primary mode for communication with their friends. And hear this, at schools that ban mobile devices, 63% of students use them anyways (ascd,2011).



There are many ethical issues surrounding the use of social media in schools but one ethical issues raised I consider to be particularly significant is the issue on confidentiality/privacy. The terms ‘privacy‘ and ‘confidentiality‘ are commonly used interchangeably. They refer to freedom from damaging publicity, public scrutiny, unauthorized disclosure of one’s personal information.

Many children look up to adult figures including teachers for ethical guidance, but not many are setting a good example.

High profile cases include one in 2012 when teacher Elizabeth Scarlett, 50, was given an official reprimand by the General Teaching Council for Wales (GTCW) for Facebook comments about drinking and partying which were then seen by her pupils (bbc, 2014). Privacy settings were not considered in such cases to prevent such bad influences to reach her students, costing her her reputation.

That said, social media opens the door to bias and judgements. A teacher may also look through a students’ social media and make judgements about them. Such judgements would then cloud the teacher’s judgements concerning grading and feedback to give the student, making it bias and unfair. One might also ask, “does an educator have the obligation to notify parents of their child’s activities online?”. A response raised says due to repeated exposure to social media, society will become more accepting of a range of different behaviours (altc, 2014). So would these increase the potential for clashes between the trust of teacher and student?


Sharing of information was seen as a particular source of problems in education due to the potential for leaked information and materials.

Just this year, social media tools such as WhatsApp and Facebook, were extensively used to share the photo of the leaked II pre-university chemistry question paper the night before examination (Bureau, 2016). Perhaps the students were just geniuses to be able to find such intel?

To conclude, when using social networking, the leap from real life to online “life” brings with it no clear boundaries, but rather questions as to the “extent of influence” an educator may have on a student.

As Stuart Williams from NUT Cymru says, “The guidelines are there, they could be a little bit more stringent” (BBC, 2014). The question is how do we tackle the issue of privacy?

Check out this video for some ideas.

(Word count: 446 words)


ascd. (2011). Students like social media. [online] Available at: [Accessed 11 Nov. 2016].

Weinstein, A. (2009). Ethics in the Classroom: What You Need to Know | [online] Available at: [Accessed 11 Nov. 2016].

BBC News. (2014). Teachers need ‘clearer’ social networking rules, unions say – BBC News. [online] Available at: [Accessed 11 Nov. 2016].

Bureau, B. (2016). Social media used extensively to share leaked question paper: CID. [online] The Hindu. Available at: [Accessed 11 Nov. 2016].

ALTC. (2014). Social media in education: ethical concerns. [online] Available at: [Accessed 11 Nov. 2016].

Reflection: Topic 3

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Often people do not recognize blogging as a method or even a tool for job-searching (or just that blogging is just too much effort compared to a 3 pages CV). And this is even more prevalent as I scroll through the web where everyone mostly use other social media platforms, most notably LinkedIn and Facebook to gain an advantage from the crowd of job hunters. I wish to highlight that I am in no way disregarding the other platforms when writing on Topic 3, but to pinpoint on that hidden “gem” most fail to see.

twitterEvaluating on the topic of blogging to a dream job, one factor JiaJiun and Kaye has brought up is we can further grow our audiences by connecting and incorporating all of our other social media profiles. Some examples that I have done includes adding my website to my Twitter and Facebook profile so as to broaden my blog audience through my friends and families. I believe word-of-mouth is a very powerful tool to have as well when trying to “market” ourselves.fb

To add to the topic on blogging, an important issue many might struggle with is to keep our blog authentic to who we are. Reading Angeline‘s and Mogan‘s blogpost, they talked about the importance of authenticity. As I have mentioned previously, a professional blog that discusses topics relevant to our dream job demonstrates passion and creativity to our potential employer (TheEmployable, 2014). But as mentioned by Ibarra (2015), having to carefully curate a persona that’s out there for all to see can clash with our private sense of self.

To conclude we should adopt a Content strategy when using our social media platforms to job-search. It entails posting carefully considered content to project an image of professionalism that does not undercut our true self. After all, what happens when we finally get the job using our social media tools yet we unable to perform as well as we have “boasted”.


(Word count: 326 words)



Ibarra, H. (2015). The Authenticity Paradox. [online] Harvard Business Review. Available at: [Accessed 10 Nov. 2016].

TheEmployable. (2014). How blogging can help you get a job. [online] Available at: [Accessed 9 Nov. 2016].

Comments made



Topic 3: Blog your way to your dream job


How can blogging help you to get a job? Unlike the stereotypical social media platforms – LinkedIn, Facebook, etc., a professional blog that discusses topics relevant to your dream job demonstrates passion and creativity to your potential employer (TheEmployable, 2014). And more often than not, an impressed employer will most likely want to hire you.

Adding to the points The Employable already mentioned, I personally want to highlight:

Everyone has a resume. So be extraordinary. For example, if you dream to be a creative writer, flex your writing muscle and freely express your work with a blogpost. Even an investment broker can blog; by writing your thought-provoking opinions on the stock markets or positive testimonials from previous clients.

Blogging give you a positive digital footprint. It gives potential employers a bigger picture of who you are, both personally and professionally. Unlike being tagged in an unflattering — and public — image of yourself on Facebook, your blog contains content you control to project yourself in the best light possible.

Some advice from recruiters.

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(Source: Jobvite – The Recruiter Nation Survey – Jobvite)

Some successful bloggers stories’ are:

William Anderson that acquired a position of Director of Marketing by blogging to track and focus on interested employers. William shared, “having a URL that showed the company’s name helped create a connection” (Share. J, 2016).

Kiley Stenberg that gain her job as a Women’s Buyer at Badowers by using her blog as a creative outlet. Kiley shared, “Badower’s saw that I had established credibility and trust with my readers, and they know I can bring that to a store setting with customers in person” (IFB, 2013).

Although blogging now sounds like a great idea, there are its limitations.

A  recent research study from TheLadders that included the direct observation of corporate recruiters demonstrated that the average recruiter spends a mere 6 seconds reviewing a resume. So try imagining spending 6 second to browse through your blog (..impossible). Furthermore, the success rate of recruitment using a blog is low.

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(Source: Jobvite – The Recruiter Nation Survey – Jobvite)

To increase our chances of earning a job using blogging, we develop them. Some suggestions are to:

(Source: – Building a digital profile: 3. How do I maintain an online community?)

Grow your audience. How effective is your blog? Remember to use it to engage with your target employer. Even earning a single loyal reader is an achievement.

Repond to comments. Constant enagagements are opportunities to communicate with the community (includes employers).

Learn to manage a crisis. Turn that crisis into a chance to showcase your interpersonal skill. Rather than deleting/censoring that comment, treating it with respect will gain you professionalism points.

To conclude, a blog is not crucial to have, however it will be a valuable addition to your job-searching tools.

(Word count: 417 words)


Evans, W. (2012). Eye Tracking Online Metacognition: Cognitive Complexity and Recruiter Decision Making. [pdf] TheLadders, p.4. Available at: [Accessed 9 Nov. 2016].

IFB. (2013). Blogger True Story: My Blog Helped Me Get My Dream Job | IFB. [online] Available at: [Accessed 9 Nov. 2016].

Ltd, F. (2016). Building a digital profile: 3. How do I maintain an online community?. [online] Available at: [Accessed 9 Nov. 2016].

Parris, J. (2013). Why You Should Blog to Get Your Next Job. [online] Mashable. Available at: [Accessed 9 Nov. 2016].

Share, J. (2016). How These Smart Job Seekers Used Blogging To Find Jobs. [online] JobMob. Available at: [Accessed 9 Nov. 2016].

TheEmployable. (2014). How blogging can help you get a job. [online] Available at: [Accessed 9 Nov. 2016].

Reflection: Topic 2

Reflecting on the topic of anoymity online, one major issue that stands out to me is the cons of having just one online identity. These cons – cyberbullying, identity theft and hacking, etc., are as dangerous as they sound. That being said however, does having multiple identity really solve such issues? Or do they merely lessen the impact of the damages caused.

Psychological research has proven again and again that anonymity increases unethical behavior. All we can do to safeguard our online identity is to be aware of your privacy settings on social media and be aware of suspicious emails or “friends” which may be phishing for data. Content providers can help by stopping mean anonymous comments by moderating them. Educated users should also report such attackers to prevent others from becoming victims. (Julia Zhuo, 2010)

(Source: Jennifer Daniel and Sandi Daniel)

Following the evolution of the internet, our behaviours on the internet is constantly changing.


As said by Lindsay Webster, the internet is “your space to be the best version of who you really are because the whole world is watching”.

As mentioned on Jacinda‘s blog, “private information on the Internet can only become ever more accessible to the general public”. There is definitely the need for people to recognize the fact that creating an online identity should be one of valuable purpose and is recognizable. Reading Wendy‘s blog, the pros of multiple identities made me remember the past where I had a secret account on Twitter used for personal rants. It had allowed me to “carefully filter and display information for the right people” which did no harm but stress relief. Everyone has something to hide and I am no different.

To conclude my understanding on this topic, we should also work hard together, to make sure that the challenges we have identified are reduced in order for existing and new users to enjoy a platform that is trustworthy and secure.

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Zhuo, J. (2010). Online, Anonymity Breeds Contempt. [online] Available at: [Accessed 8 Nov. 2016].

Comments made



Topic 2: You can be anyone online, but how many “one” do you want to be?

The “one” being referred to is your online identity. What is an online identity? Many may have their own opinion but here is one for you from Costa and Torres (2016).

“…the way we showcase our practice online, how we participate and interact in shared spaces, i.e., how we present ourselves and which ‘persona’ we assume as part of our presence online.”

Image result(Source:

So, it it a matter of choice on how many “one” we want to be known as online and how we portray these identities. Being devoted to your true identity online or creating multiple online identities to satisfy your other desires; each choice has its pros and cons. Personally, I feel that there is no wrong or right on either choices as it all boils down to the motives that drives their existence.

In the early days of the internet, it was probably safe to assume that our online behaviours did not reveal much about our offline persona. This notion was popularised by the “on the internet, nobody knows you’re dog” caption of a famous cartoon by Peter Steiner and published by The New Yorker in 1993.

petersteinerImage result for Kaamran Hafeez

(Sources left to right: Wikipedia-Peter Steiner, Hafeez)

22 years later, The New Yorker published another cartoon on the subject, drawn by Kaamran Hafeez. This time with two dogs watching their owner surf the web. The caption: “Remember when, on the internet, nobody knew who you were?” (Baker, 2016).

This mean as the internet gained prominence in our lives, it forced us to reconsider our online identities in comparison with others. It has even allowed us to ally with people with a similar outlook and become part of their community, even if they live thousands of miles away. Although I believe many of us gave up anonymity and also the desire to mask our real identity online, there will always be others that still hang on to it.


(Source: The internet Society – Understanding your Online Identity: An Overview of Identity)

A common dilemma many people face regarding their digital identity deals with the way they separate their private life from their professional sphere. Unlike the identities other have on us (portrayed above), we can control our online identities.

We provide the information, pictures, videos, etc. and build them into our identity we want others to see and know. In real, we already have so many identities to handle, so I feel we should stick to our real, one of a kind self online as well.

(Word count: 394 words)


Costa, C. and Torres, R. (2016). To be or not to be, the importance of Digital Identity in the networked society. [online] Available at: [Accessed 7 Nov. 2016].

Baker, D. (2016). How disconnecting the internet could help our identity – BBC News. [online] BBC News. Available at: [Accessed 7 Nov. 2016].

The Internet Society. (2016). Understanding your Online Identity: An Overview of Identity. [online] Available at: http://Understanding+your+Online+Identity:+ An+Overview+of+Identity [Accessed 7 Nov. 2016].

Reflection: Topic 1


(Source: Google)

After reading through most of my classmates take on the same topic, I would like to say that there may be differences in our way of understanding these concepts, it is interesting to note how it is all quite similar in conclusion. We all categorised ourselves individually and made pretty agreeable reasons with being either a digital resident, digital visitor or even both because why not!?.

On Jacinda‘s blog, I commented on her statement made regarding the convenience of digital technology. Should everyone become a digital resident if it is such a convenience? Digital technology has personally helped me in many ways – interacting with friends, booking a flight and research purposes for school, etc. So I would definitely welcome everyone to become one. But one important point to note is that these benefits do not come without its own dangers. Often, we would be asked very personal questions that many would hesitate to answer. What’s your age? Who are you friends with? Where do you live? What’s our credit card number? Often, these information are stored in databases and they assure us that “we are a secure site”. How secure are they really? Hence, precautions should be made and research should be done at our own discrete.

On Joletta‘s blog, I commented on her descriptive definitions of digital residents and digital visitors that helped me further understand their differences. I agreed with her statement with regards to drawing a clear line between the online and offline world. As I know that sharing too much online may draw unneccessary attention and may even “stab me in the back” one day. A thought I had is if one should take caution on what is shared online, should being a digital resident not be reccomended for all? As I reiterate, one should know the dangers first then take neccessary precautions. One recommendation is to learn from experienced so as to avoid any possible mistakes.

To conclude my reflection, I feel that all forms of the Web are merely tools for us to use. Trends in its exposure and usefulness may affect the proportion of each category but be it being a digital resident or digital visitor, everyone has the choice to decide who they want to be in the spectrum.

(Word count: 378 words)

Comments made: